THE SPACE JUNK REMEDIATION PROJECT

      {Feb. – April, 2008}

 

                           Michael Ricciardi

 

The following design document was the result of a thought experiment on
remediation of orbital debris, i.e., ‘space junk’. The author/designer is a non-specialist or engineer, but is a naturalist, science scholar, and tech.-art designer.

 

 

 

  A GENERAL METHODOLOGY
      for Larger Objects (≥ 10 cm)

 

i)   Capture

 

ii)  Contain (secure for disposal or

      redeployment)

 

iii) Re-Deploy (into deep space, 

     solar trajectory, or to 

     earth; de-orbit / re-orbit

 

iv) Recover/Recycle (if re-

     deployed to earth)

 

 

 

My first attempt at a concept design for space junk removal (based upon the

        opening sequence in the James Bond film You Only Live Twice):

 

 

 

THE JUNK EATER

  Multi-functional Utility
  Craft for Controlled
  Elimination of Debris

         [MUCCED]

 

 

 

 

 Problems:

 

    A dedicated, single space craft would require great amounts of energy to intercept objects in different orbital planes; size limitation – need to redeploy contained objects frequently.

 

 Solutions:

  

   Maneuver Junk Eater to different altitude (taking advantage of differential precession of node lines) then return to altitude of interest (N.L. Johnson); Nuclear (NERVA engine?) or plasma energy source (on board) or Hydrogen fuel cells (or both); de-obit or re-orbit objects (above LEO ?), thus limited need for containment (if redeployed to Earth for analysis/recycling)

 

                       

 

SOME ALTERNATIVE IDEAS:

 

   The “Junk Collie” - Drone/robotic device attaches to junk, and, through remote control, shifts junk into deep space/solar trajectory, or earth re-entry (if piece is wanted for analysis or recycling). Also, drone could attach metallic ‘drag strip’, or carbon mesh ‘sail’ (see OLDA concept design; laser targeting) to junk to accelerate decay. (note: “current manned space craft cannot reach key orbital regimes above 600km” – N. L. Johnson)

 

 

 

 

Problems:

  

   Cost; energy requirements (source), propulsion system, also: significant long-term power and altitude control subsystems; drone needs space base (?)

 

 Solutions:

 

   Cost ≤ Military drones; ion engine, or, solar-electric propulsion technology; lower energy system that “nudges” junk incrementally into desired orbit (longer term) or decay trajectory (reduces speed); docks at ISS; engineering challenge.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orbital Laser Decay Accelerator

 

Dedicated, space-based, omni-directional laser platform (in HEO; above 2000km) for selective tracking, targeting, and heating of objects* to accelerate decay (mimic ‘cleansing’ effect from high solar activity/ radiation pressure).

 

* Smaller objects under 10 cm or critical size

 

 

 

Problems:

 

   Technical feasibility; DOD concept (SBL system); large mass of satellites = large amount of energy needed to deposit on object to effect orbital changes; laser ‘sail’ (C mesh) needed for large junk (?); process may increase debris?

 

 Solutions:

 

   Use for smaller debris (lower energy needed for altitude changes); joint gov./civilian usage; augment beam through amplification ‘lensing’; use ‘pulsed capacitors’ for super efficient laser pumping; use ‘junk collie’ drone to attach ‘sail’; realistic goal: reduce altitude.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plasma Beam “Junk Blower” / OPRA

 

Similar function to Laser craft – accelerates decay of debris; also: use as a junk ‘re-locator’, ala ‘leaf blower’, to create temporary launch window (or altitude reduction). Magnetized Plasma Beam (Mag-Beam) concept was conceived as a way of accelerating space flight between distant planets (Winglee, UW); same concept here (without the dual station plan; one plasma beam source for junk targeting).

 

 

 

 

 Problems:

   Technical challenge; initial energy source; ‘beaming’ or re-locating space junk could cause break ups / increased risk of collisions and thus total debris (and risk, etc.)

 

  Solution:

 

   Highly controlled targeting within debris ‘fields’;  combine solar-electric and H fuel cells; lower energy impact, i.e., ‘nudging’ into reduced altitude band; possible complete decomposition of object in orbit (size to energy per unit area dependent) Designer’s Note: if it can be used for spacecraft transportation it can be used for space junk re-location

 

 

 

 

 

 

                        OTHER STRATEGIES:

 

For Smaller (10 cm or less) Debris (unknown number, perhaps millions)

 

 

 

 

Electro-magnetic Debris Accumulator

 

         Tethered

         Interception for     =    TIDĒ

         Debris

         Elimination

 

 

 

 

 

Problems:

 

   Requires dedicated space craft; energy source; disposal of debris post accumulation; non-magnetic particles (?)

 

Solutions:

 

   Adapted to existing craft (?); tether can be over a kilometer (or more) long, attached to space craft which retrieves accumulator or maneuvers into desired LEO and lowers accumulator, ‘cuts’ EM current, releasing debris into new altitude (use in conjunction with Junk Eater ?) ALTERNATIVE (for not magnetic metal/debris): Tethered sphere is coated with a thick layer of AEROGEL (entire sphere could also be hollow and/or filled with aerogel; sphere shell made of penetrable material to capture small, high velocity debris inside it.

 

 



LONG-TERM (BIG PROJECT) STRATEGY:

 

       Orbital Plasma-gasification Station / OPS

 

         Maneuverable station (like the ISS); advantages: Debris is ‘gasified’ in space (less risk of more ‘catastrophic’ collisions)

         ‘Syngas’ waste (H and CO) can be converted into hydrogen (for fuel cells), methane, ethanol; gases and ‘glass slag’ can be used on earth

         OPS is ‘self-sustaining’, i.e., generates energy flow after ‘jolting’ (can be a ‘power station’ for other spacecraft)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Problems:

 

   COST! Also: space installation, positioning, operation, maintenance

 

 Solutions:

 

   Long-term, multi-national project; built in space (?); merely an engineering/management problem…

 

 

The Challenges of Junk Remediation

 

 

Technical Feasibility (includes energy sources)

 

RESPONSE: Are we not a creative species (tech innovation/ invention)?

 

Economic Viability (viable=affordable means: given other space programs and priorities)

 

RESPONSE: If we can spend trillions on warfare, can’t we spend 50 billion to build a dedicated space junk remediation system?

 

HOW MUCH RISK IS ACCEPTABLE?

 

"The bottom line is very simple.'' Liou said. "Although the risk is small*, we need to pay attention to this environmental problem.''

 

* Risk is “small” now, but will increase over the next century, especially after 2055

 

  

 

IF WE DO NOTHING…

 

Worst Case Scenario:

 

THE KESSLER EFFECT ? i.e., the space around Earth becomes so riddled with junk that launchings are almost impossible. Vehicles that entered space would quickly be destroyed.

 

More likely Scenario:

 

ECONOMIC BARRIER: more shielding = more weight = more cost to launch => too expensive to do business in space

 

 

 

 

    PROPOSAL:

 

Through a government and private sector partnership: Implementation of a forty year plan to build an orbital, maneuverable, space debris control station with multiple energy sources and debris remediation strategies.

  

 

 

What is needed--vis a vis Space Junk remediation--to maintain space activity and to insure a relatively safe transition to a space-based culture and economy is…

 

Public Support (education)

Political Will ($)

    & Technical Creativity

 

      (‘steam’ = science-technology-engineering-art-mathematics)

 

         Just as a SUPER FUND* was created for earth industrial cleanup, so too, we may need a ‘SUPER FUND’ for space industrial clean up.

 

                                                           * paid into from a space tourism tax

 

 

 

 

"It's a job that's never started that takes the longest to finish."

J.R.R. Tolkien

 

 

 

 

Document & Designs created by Michael A. Ricciardi